A natural constituent of chamomile extract. It is known for its soothing, analgesic, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that make it ideal for dry and sensitive skin.
Natural extract of algae. Its benefits are attributed to the rich contents of vitamins, minerals, amino acids, lipids and polysaccharides. It reduces itchiness and tautness, reduces the skin’s sensitivity, soothes the skin and normalises the epidermal water contents.
A natural ingredient with proven attributes for soothing irritated skin, stimulating cell regeneration and moisturising very dry skin. It is said to promote wound healing and tissue formation.
A commonly used ingredient with anti-inflammatory, astringent, emollient, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial and anti-viral properties. Aloe-derived ingredients enhance the appearance of dry or damaged skin by reducing flaking and restoring suppleness.
A tyrosinase inhibitor that prevents tyrosine being transformed into melanin. According to studies, Alpha-Arbutin acts faster, safer and more efficiently than most of other skin-lightening ingredients. It helps in diminishing tanning spots or age spots. It also helps in reducing wrinkles and fine lines.
An anti-inflammatory agent and a building block to collagen and elastin. It works in combination with D-Beta-Fructan and D-Beta-Glucosamine to build stable, moisture-retaining mucopolysaccharides in the skin.
An anti-inflammatory agent and a building block to collagen and elastin. It works in combination with D-Beta-Fructan and D-Beta-Glucosamine to build stable, moisture-retaining mucopolysaccharides in the skin.
Green apple puree is rich in antioxidants, vitamins and UV radiation blocking agents. It nourishes and hydrates the skin, reduces the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles and makes the skin look healthy and vibrant.
This oil contains several beneficial lipids and fatty acids for skin, including oleic acid, palmitic acid, and especially linoleic acid. It is also a good source of vitamin E (Tocopherol) and ferulic acid known for their antioxidant properties. It contains rare plant sterols, which have anti-inflammatory properties. It contains saponins, which soften the skin and ease acne and eczema and it restores the skin’s water lipid layer, helping to minimise wrinkles.
Azelaic acid has anti-bacterial properties and is is useful for both comedonal and inflammatory acne. It is a scavenger of free radicals and helps to reduce pigmentation by inhibiting the enzyme tyrosinase.
Borage is very emollient and soothing and helps to reduce reddening of very sensitive skins. It has a skin clearing and lightening effect and promotes healthy skin growth. It is a healing oil, especially when chronic skin disorders are present such as eczema and atopic dermatitis. Borage is the richest known source of the essential fatty acid called gamma-linolenic acid (GLA). It furthermore has good anti-inflammatory action and also acts as a hormonal balancer.
A proteolytic enzyme isolated from the pineapple. Bromelain exfoliates the skin by breaking down the connecting bridges that hold surface skin cells together. Bromelain has been shown to have anti-edematous, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, and fibrinolytic properties.
A natural ingredient with astringent, anti-inflammatory and de-puffing properties. It activates lymphatic flow, enhances circulation and stabilizes capillaries’ wall structure.
Caffeine is used as a de-puffing and anti-cellulite agent. It has also been shown to have antioxidant, analgesic, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. As a circulatory modulator it promotes circulation and increases blood flow.
A botanical ingredient similar to hyaluronic acid. It retains moisture in the skin, boosts immunity, calms skin irritations and leaves the skin smooth and velvety.
A super-ingredient used for its multiple benefits on skin health. It contains high concentrations of asiaticosides and triterpenes that have been shown to boost circulation, improve the collagen production of the skin, strengthen capillaries, reduce stretch marks, normalize scar formation and reduce fine lines and wrinkles.
A natural extract containing Alpha-Bisabolol as its main constituent. This extract is known for its soothing, analgesic, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that make it ideal for dry and sensitive skin. It is also a vasodilator increasing dermal blood flow.
Cherries are rich in vitamins A, C and E, flavonoids, minerals, anthocyanins and ellagic acid that contribute anti-oxidant, Anti-bacterial and anti-cancer properties.
Also known as carrageenan, is an oceanic seaweed rich in amino acids, polysaccharides, beta-caroten, vitamin B and sulfur. It is known for its anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and soothing properties.
Cocoa is rich in polyphenols that are potent anti-oxidants and inhibit degradation of collagen and elastin. It is a stimulant of dermal blood flow. Studied have shown this extract to increase hydration, improve skin barrier function and reduce trans-epidermal water loss.
A plant extract that contains allantoin that promotes skin healing. This extract is anti-inflammatory, astringent and promotes wound healing and tissue regeneration.
Cranberry is a “super fruit” with multi-functional ingredients proven to have antioxidant, anti-Inflammatory, antiseptic, brightening, antimicrobial, cell renewal, anti-bacterial properties. These benefits are related to high contents of polyphenols and tocotrienols vitamin C, vitamin B-3, vitamin B-5 and omega oils.
The most active form of the fat-soluble vitamin E. Tocopherol is recognized as the most effective biological antioxidant that mainly protects the skin against UV damage. Vitamin E is used as a moisturizing agent, an antioxidant and to improve the elasticity of the skin.
A mushroom-derived polysaccharide that stimulates the immune function of the skin and improves the skin’s moisture retention.
An anti-inflammatory agent and a building block to collagen and elastin.
A chirally corrected natural alkaloid with powerful anti-oxidant activity, and protects against UV damage. Also D-boldine is anti-inflammatory, calming and inhibits melanin production.
An ingredient that controls oil and sebum production and excretion. It stimulates (D-) ceramide production in the skin to create an intact barrier against water loss and hostile environmental influences.
A new anti-wrinkle active peptide complex which mimics the neuromuscular blocking compound found in the Temple Viper snake. Its age defying effect is particularly effective against expression lines and it smooths mimic wrinkles in a short period.
A chirally-corrected pro-vitamin of vitamin B complex often referred to as the “beautifying” vitamin. D-Panthenol provides deep moisturization, stimulates skin healing, softens of the skin, makes the skin more elastic and soothes irritated skin.
A strong antiseptic ingredient with healing and stimulating properties. A vasodilator that improves blood circulation.
An exceptionally fine textured oil with superb moisturizing, emollient, as well as anti-inflammatory properties. It is exceptionally rich in fatty acids, especially in gamma linolenic acid (GLA), When used topically on the skin, it has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, which in effect supports anti-aging and reduces redness in the skin.
Gama Amino Butyric Acid, a peptide naturally found in the body that can block signals between nerves and muscles, relax facial muscles and make wrinkles less apparent when applied to the skin. It has also potent skin lightening properties by blocking tyrosinase activity.
A natural highly functional polysaccharide extracted from Larch trees. Studies have shown that this ingredient is a significant exfoliant as well as an exfoliant enhancer when used with other exfoliants. It reduces fine lines and wrinkles, increases cell metabolic activity, improves sun-blocking properties of titanium oxide and reduces trans epidermal water loss.
A non-irritating, antioxidant Polyhydroxy acid (PHA) that is suitable for all skin types, including sensitive skin. This PHA is a naturally occurring water-attracting agent found in the human body naturally so the skin is already accustomed to it, minimizing skin irritation. Gluconolactone reduces the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles, and smoothes skin texture.
The most basic building block of hyaluronic acid and a precursor of vitamin C. It is used as a moisturizing agent.
Perhaps the best-known of a group of skin-exfoliating chemicals called fruit acids or alpha-hydroxy acids (AHA). This natural ingredient is commonly extracted from sugar cane. Glycolic acid is a rapid exfoliant ideal for fading sunspots, acne scars, blemishes, fine lines and wrinkles. Glycolic Acid rejuvenates the skin and refines its texture by shedding of old, sun-damaged surface skin cells, stimulation cell regeneration in the skin by increasing the production of collagen and revealing younger-looking skin and a clear, radiant complexion.
The polymer is a “strand” of linked glycolic acid molecules. It is more readily absorbed by the skin where it slowly breaks down to exert its exfoliating activity. It is less irritating than the “regular” glycolic acid.
Consisting of Hyaluronic Acid, Mucopolysacharides and Chondroiton Sulphates, these compounds maintain and support collagen, elastin and the extra-cellular water.
This ingredient is extracted from the grapes of vine and contains proanthocycanidins which are the most beneficial flavonoids and highly effective anti-oxidants. It also protects collagen and elastin by inhibiting MMP enzymes that damage them.
A multi-action agent rich in polyphenols and methylxanthines. These constituents are capable of blocking free radicals, counteracting inflammation, inhibiting collagenous and collagen destruction and protecting against UV damages.
Commonly known as azulene, an essential oil derived from German chamomile plant. It is an excellent anti-inflammatory, analgesic and detoxifier. Extremely calming and soothing to the skin.
A bio-technological innovative bio-peptide that targets the underlying process of dark circles around the eyes and eliminate excessive accumulation these pigments. It has an anti-inflammatory, firming and toning properties.
A modification of normal water that makes the water heavier, more stable and more resistant to vaporization. This property makes it more available to the skin for firming and increasing its water contents.
A botanical ideal for sensitive or delicate skin. It helps stimulate skin circulation and diminish the appearance of broken capillaries. It contains esculin and oligo-proanthocyanadins – potent antioxidant compounds which counter skin-damaging free radicals.
Derived from the plant with ancient healing properties that is used medicinally to reduce body water and as an astringent. Extremely high in silica, which has healing, softening and smoothing effects on the skin.
A naturally derived plant peptide which inhibits the activity of matrix metaloproteinases that breakdown collagen, elastin and hyaluronic acid. It readily absorbs by the skin and has restructuring and regenerating effects on the skin.
A Mediterranean shrub rich in oligogalacturonans which help stimulate the synthesis of SIRT-1 proteins involved in cell longevity. It functions as a skin protectant and has been clinically shown to Increases lifespan of cells, aids cellular regeneration, Inhibits glycation, relaxes wrinkles and reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles.
A skin bleaching agent inhibiting the enzyme tyrosinase, thereby arresting the biochemical pathway of melanin production. Some of the other possible mechanisms of action are the destruction of melanocytes, degradation of melanosomes (melanin-containing structures).
A pure herbal extract known to enhance rejuvenation and longevity, reduce inflammation, heal, provide protection from free radicals and restore effective circulation in areas of inflammation.
Obtained from cold pressing of jojoba nuts. It creates a stable film that improves the barrier function of the skin, reduces the trans-epidermal water loss and improves the skin’s moisture balance.
Inhibits melanin production by inhibiting tyrosinase, induces skin lightening, helps establishing an even skin tone on all skin types and minimizes liver spots. Kojic acid was also found to be an antioxidant helping to protect the skin from free radical attack.
The polymer is a “strand” of linked lactic acid molecules. It is more readily absorbed by the skin where it slowly breaks down to exert its exfoliating activity. It is less irritating than the “regular” lactic acid and has an increased moisturizing activity by binding much more water.
A chirally corrected ingredient obtained from chamomile plant and soothes skin discomfort and irritations. L-alpha Bisabolol has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and wound healing properties, as well as antimycotic and antibacterial effects. Specifically, it is a potent inhibitor of fungi.
A chirally-corrected natural skin lightening agent extracted from the leaves of bearberry plant. L-Arbutin protects the skin against damage caused by free radicals and inhibits the production of melanin by affecting the activity of tyrosinase. It is also anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial.
Commonly known as Vitamin C, a water-soluble vitamin with well documented antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. It has been shown to rebuild healthy collagen fibers and reduce wrinkles. It has a skin whitening effect and reduces skin discolorations. In 20% concentration it is restorative to skin damaged by sun exposure, smoking, or improper nutrition.
A potent anti aging natural ingredient known to prevent glycation – a process that destroys DNA and collagen leading to loss of cell function, premature aging and wrinkling of the skin. It has anti-inflammatory and super-antioxidant properties as well.
Lactic acid, or milk acid, is an alpha-hydroxy acid derived from milk. The importance of this ingredient lies in its ability to exfoliate and hydrate the skin. By removing the dead skin layers, the skin will have a healthier texture and fresher appearance. Lactic acid exfoliates the skin without being harsh – the human body naturally produces this acid so the skin is already accustomed to it, minimizing skin irritation and rejection. Lactic acid has a substantial moisturizing quality as well. Lactic acid Improves the overall texture of the skin, reducing fine lines and wrinkles.
A mild alpha hydroxy acid (AHA) derived from apples and used in skin care products to rejuvenate and improve skin conditions. It can be used alone or in combination with other AHA. It’s mainly known to exfoliate and even skin tone, reduce acne breakouts, reduce hyper-pigmentation and signs of age spots, reduce fine lines and wrinkles and relieve symptoms of rosacea. Thanks to its slightly larger molecular structure, malic acid penetrates the skin more slowly and evenly and causes less irritation.
An essential amino acid that plays an important role in the process of collagen synthesis. It improves the healing process of cells and strengthens the cellular wall.
Retinol is fat soluble chirally corrected form of vitamin A. It is considered a powerful anti-aging multiple-action agent. It penetrates deeply into the skin to stimulate regeneration of skin cells, open clogged pores, balance the sebum secretion, brighten hyper-pigmented areas, inhibit matrix metaloproteinases that breakdown collagen and elastin and repair tissue damages.
Sodium PCA occurs naturally in human skin and is responsible for drawing moisture from the surrounding air to the cells. Highly water -absorbing and used as an excellent humectant. A component of the NMF (natural moisturizing factor).
The skin’s own anti-oxidant enzyme, which acts as an powerful tissue protector by blocking the common peroxide ion. It repairs cell walls and has anti-inflammatory activity.
Lycopene is a carotenoid found mainly in tomatoes. It is an efficient antioxidant especially when combined with other antioxidants and protects skin from damaging effects of UV radiation.
A relatively innovative anti-aging ingredient. It I a combination of 2 biopeptides – palmitoyl oligopeptide and palmitoyl tetrapeptide-7. These powerful peptides has been shown to stimulate fibroblasts to produce collagen, significantly reduce wrinkle depth, reduce skin roughness, reduce protein breakdown by inflammation and increase skin tone.
A natural ingredient with antioxidant properties derived from the kernels of the oat plant. Clinical studies have also shown that oat kernel extract can improve skin firmness, moisturize skin and reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles.
Olive oil consists mainly of fatty acids (oleic acid 55-85%, palmitic acid and linoleic acid) along with other skin-nourishing compounds such as squalane, oleuropein and vitamin E. Olive oil is an effective anti-oxidant, moisturizer and protects the skin against UVB damage.
A biologically active form of vitamin B3 that is involved in cellular metabolism, increases synthesis of collagen and ceramides, blocks free radicals damage, anti-inflammatory, improves epidermal barrier function, inhibits skin pigmentation by inhibiting the migration of melanosomes, Improves functional and structural integrity of the skin barrier and assists in smoothing of fine lines/wrinkles.
An active proteolytic enzyme found in papaya used as a “biological scalpel” to break intercellular bonds and dissolve dead skin cells without affecting the surrounding live tissue.
An exceptional ingredient that traps and detoxifies damaging free radicals. PBN can limit the glycation process that damages the collagen and causes premature aging and wrinkling. It has substantial anti-inflammatory activity as well.
Pumpkin wine distilled and processed from pure pumpkin extract high in Vitamin A, Zinc, Beta-Carotene and Salicylic Acid. All these ingredients are potent anti-oxidants with skin-healing properties.
Perfluorodecalin is a unique gas carrier and as such allows cosmetic formulations to solve problems of carbon dioxide cleansing or oxygen enrichment of cells. Perfluorodecalin allows the skin to breathe to optimum levels and to self regulate better in polluted environments. It is an ideal detoxification agent, as it cleans the skin of carbon dioxide and enriches the oxygen levels of the skin.
Rich in tannins, polyphenols and gallic acid, this ingredient possesses significant astringent, antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory activities.
This fruit carries outstanding skin care properties including moisturizing, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It promotes the production of collagen and elastin which strengthen and support to the skin, effectively slows the formation of wrinkles and marks related to aging, protects skin from ultraviolet sun damages and promotes skin cell regeneration by extending the life of fibroblasts.
A naturally occurring flavonoid with anti-oxidant, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-allergic activities. It protects the skin cells from UV damages. It also protects elastin from breakdown by inhibiting the activity of the enzyme elastase.
A blend of two powerful anti-aging anti-oxidants that act synergistically to protect the skin against hostile free radicals.
A form of vitamin A with numerous anti-aging effects.
It stimulates skin repair, increases collagen production through increased fibroblast growth, improves elasticity, increases skin thickness, improves skin texture, facilitate cellular renewal and thus reduce fine lines and wrinkles.
Derived from yeast this extract is composed of many valuable substances like peptides, amino acids, enzymes and polysaccharides as well as Vitamins of the B group. It Increases collagen synthesis and reduce wrinkles, Increases moisture, Increases superficial and deep skin firmness, protects against free radical damage and Increases skin clarity by blocking melanin biosynthesis.
A unique complex comprised silicon bonded to a polypeptide substrate by a bioengineering process. This complex shows enhanced ability to bind moisture to the skin.
Salicylic acid is a beta hydroxy acid (BHA) known for its ability to exfoliate the skin, clear pores, reduce inflammation and kill bacteria. Its keratolytic activity results in breaking down blackheads and whiteheads (comedones) by peeling the top layer of skin and clearing blocked pores. Salicylic acid also has anti-inflammatory properties which can help reduce the redness of inflamed breakout lesions. These properties make Salicylic Acid and ideal ingredient for treating acne and a variety of skin concerns, including sun damage and psoriasis.
Contains a perfect mixture of vitamins A, B1, B2, C, E, phytosterols, flavonoids and essential fatty acids that play important roles in the process of skin repairing.
An essential trace mineral known as a major antioxidant nutrient; protects cell membranes and prevents free radical generation thereby reducing the risk of cancer and disease. Selenium also preserves tissue elasticity; slows down the aging of the skin through oxidation and helps in the treatment and prevention of dandruff.
Obtained from the African Karite Nut tree, shea butter Contains a high content of unique fatty acids essential for balancing the skin’s moisture content and retaining its elasticity. It also assists in protecting the skin against the damaging effects of UV rays, fights the effects of aging, softens and maintains skin moisture, aids wound healing and helps repair damaged skin.
Hyaluronic acid, is a natural glycosaminoglycan (GAG) found in the skin’s support matrix. GAGs bind up to 1000 times their weight in water. When applied topically, they attract water and moisturize.
Studies have also shown that hyaluronic acid can increase the presence of retinoic acid (which assists in skin regeneration and hydration) as well as increase collagen synthesis.
Soothing, smoothing mild sulfate-free cleansing agent, green-environmentally friendly.
Extracted from raw soy plants. These ingredients act as a powerful antioxidants and as an anti-inflammatory agents, stimulate collagen production, enhance thickness and elasticity of the skin.
Described as a ‘breakthrough in anti-aging therapy’, spin trap is an intelligent antioxidant and the most powerful one anywhere. Instead of destroying the rogue oxygen free radicals, it traps them, transforms them into useful oxygen and then escorts them back into the respiratory cycle where it is utilized in tissue respiration.
Naturally obtained from olive oil, this ingredient is a highly-effective moisturizer and is a major constituent of the human sebum. It helps to maintain skin’s flexibility and suppleness and the proper barrier function against hostile environmental conditions. Due to its skin-identical structure, this ingredient has high affinity to skin and its natural lipids, excellent skin-penetrating qualities, reduced fine wrinkles, medium spreading qualities, non irritating, non-allergenic, and hypo-comedogenic properties. The resulting tissue shows improved texture accompanied by a reduction in dryness and fine lines/wrinkles.
A plant extract containing glycolic acid and natural moisturizing factors (NMF) that gently removes damaged, dead and dry cells and helpas regulate moisture balance.
A new anti-wrinkle active peptide complex which mimics the neuromuscular blocking compound found in the Temple Viper snake. Its age defying effect is particularly effective against expression lines and it smoothes mimic wrinkles in a short period.
A potent ant-fungal, antiseptic, anti-viral, anti-bacterial and analgesic agent. Recognized as a topical remedy for many skin disorders especially acne and sensitive skin.
Titanium Dioxide is an Inert earth mineral used is skin care products due to its soothing, softening, whitening, healing, anti-bacterial and sunscreen properties. Its major function is as an efficient blocker of both UVA and UVB rays.
A highly effective anti-aging ingredient shown to improve collagen I and collagen IV synthesis after just 15 days. Collagen fibers appear significantly more uniform and better organized, as they would be in young skin. This effect results in fuller more supple skin.
Also called CoQ10, a fat-soluble antioxidant found in most tissues in the body and plays a critical role in the aging process. Studies have shown that ubiquinone reduces UV damage, protects from free radicals hazards, assists in cellular repair, stimulates healthy collagen production and reduces wrinkles and fine lines.
A major constituent of the water soluble fraction of stratum corneum, as a component of the natural moisturizing factor (NMF). It has good water-binding, skin softening and exfoliating properties for skin. Urea found in cosmetics and personal care products is synthetic and not animal derived.
Ursolic acid is a very potent anti-aging compound. Ursolic acid has been used to treat photo-aged skin, because it suppresses production of UV-A induced free radicals and inhibits the appearance of wrinkles and age spots by restoring the skins collagen bundle structures and elasticity. Scientific studies have shown that ursolic acid contains biological actives that give it anti-microbial, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties.
In the skin it increases skin collagen content by increasing its production by skin fibroblast cells in the dermis, as well as increasing the ceramides content in the epidermis.
Rich humectant, emollient and lubricant naturally extracted from vegetable oils. Softens and soothes the skin; Assists the outer epidermis is retaining moisture.
The vitamin B complex includes B1 (Thiamine), B2 (Riboflavin), B3 (Niacin), B5 (Pantothenic Acid), B6 (Pyridoxine) and B12 (Cyanocobalamin). These are water-soluble vitamins essential for correct RNA and DNA synthesis and cell regeneration, support of metabolism, maintenance of healthy skin, and enhancement of immune function. Commonly used to improve the ability of the epidermis to retain moisture, reduce flakes and wrinkles and for their anti-inflammatory effect.
Watercress contains a range of nutrients and phytochemicals associated with the maintenance of skin health, including vitamins A (from Beta-Carotene), C and E, Polyphenols and Carotenoids. It helps to neutralize free radicals, reverse UV radiation damage, eliminate impurities and eliminate congestion. Watercress Extract stimulates, purifies, and refreshes.
Known to restore skin tissue and support skin healing while protecting against UV damage and providing Anti-Inflammatory benefits.
Contains high levels of vitamin E, as well as other vitamins, minerals, protein, and essential fatty acids playing important roles in skin cell formation and renewal, and is great for nourishing and rejuvenating dry, mature, dehydrated skin, and reducing scars, stretch marks, sunburns, and damaged skin. It has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties as well.
Consists of essential amino acids, growth factors, vitamins and minerals. These potent constituents mediate the process of natural collagen production. Lactoferrin, one of the dominant whey protein constituents has anti-inflammatory properties and is useful in treating psoriasis and other skin conditions.
Due to high phytosterols content, this ingredient is used as an astringent, soothing and anti-inflammatory agent.
A natural extract rich in phyto-hormones that when applied cosmetically help maintain a youthful appearance in sun damaged and ageing, hormonally-deprived skin. It has antioxidant and the anti-inflammatory activities as well.
A mild keratolytic ingredient with antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and soothing activities making it a perfect ingredient for acne and problematic skin treatment products. It also enhances skin cell turnover to improve the health and appearance of photo-aged skin.
A proven contributor to young-looking skin. Obtained from red grapes rich in polyphenols and anthocyanins, wine extract is a powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent.
A natural substance with Anti-inflammatory, skin-calming and antioxidant properties. They stimulate collagen synthesis, support the integrity of blood capillaries in the skin, block harmful effects of UV-B radiation and counteract fungi and bacteria.
A plant extract with astringent, anti-septic properties and strong antioxidant properties.
Yeast extract is composed valuable substances like proteins, peptides, amino acids, enzymes, polysaccharides and vitamins of the B group. This ingredient is claimed to moisturize skin, heal sunburns and chapped skin, sooth, promote collagen synthesis, restore elasticity to skin, enhance the rate of cell turnover in the skin and reduce facial lines.
A salt of zinc that supports proper function of immune system in the skin/connective tissue, promotes collagen and elastin synthesis, stimulates metabolism, cell division and tissue repair.